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37th International Conference on Psychiatry and Mental Health, will be organized around the theme “Advanced Treatments in Psychiatry and Mental Health”
PSYCHIATRY MEET 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in PSYCHIATRY MEET 2024
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Advances in Psychiatric Diagnosis refer to developments and improvements in the process of identifying and categorizing mental health disorders. Psychiatric diagnosis is a critical component of mental health care as it guides treatment decisions and helps clinicians understand the nature of a patient's condition.
Here are some key aspects and advances in psychiatric diagnosis:
- DSM-5 and Beyond
- Dimensional Approaches
- Digital Tools
- Integration of Technology
- Cultural Sensitivity
- Transdiagnostic Approaches
- Machine Learning and AI
- Patient-Reported Outcomes
Evidence-Based Psychopharmacology refers to the practice of prescribing psychiatric medications based on rigorous scientific evidence and clinical research. It is a critical aspect of modern psychiatric care, ensuring that medications are prescribed with a solid understanding of their effectiveness, safety, and potential side effects.
- Clinical Guidelines
- Individualized Treatment
- First-Line and Second-Line Treatments
- Emerging Treatments
- Ethical Considerations
Mental health refers to a person's emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It encompasses various aspects of an individual's life, including their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, relationships, and overall quality of life. Good mental health is characterized by a state of emotional resilience, the ability to cope with life's challenges, maintain fulfilling relationships, work productively, and make informed decisions.
Key points about mental health include
- Positive Mental Health
- Mental Disorders
- Protective Factors
- Preventive Measures
- Mental Health Promotion
- Holistic Approach
Depression is a common and serious mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It can affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and physical well-being, leading to a range of symptoms and impairments in daily life. Here are key points about depression:
Depression symptoms can vary from person to person but often include
- Persistent sadness or a low mood
- Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
- Fatigue or low energy
- Changes in appetite or weight
- Sleep disturbances (insomnia or oversleeping)
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
- Physical symptoms like aches and pains
- Thoughts of death or suicide
Types of Depression: There are various forms of depression, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), bipolar disorder (with depressive episodes), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and more. Each type has distinct features.
Bipolar disorder, previously referred to as manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder distinguished by intense mood fluctuations, including episodes of mania (marked by elevated or irritable mood) and depression (characterized by low mood). In contrast, anxiety disorders constitute a category of conditions characterized by excessive and frequently irrational apprehension, fear, or nervousness. These encompass disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias.
Symptoms of Bipolar and Anxiety Disorders
- Increased energy
- Decreased need for sleep
- Racing thoughts and Poor judgment
- Depressive symptoms include sadness
- Changes in appetite or sleep and thoughts of death or Suicide.
- Muscle tension
- Rapid heartbeat
- Sweating, and avoidance of anxiety-provoking situations or objects
Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that often manifests in late adolescence or early adulthood. It involves a range of symptoms, including distorted thinking, hallucinations, delusions, and impaired emotional expression.
Schizophrenia symptoms can be categorized into three main groups
Positive Symptoms: These reflect an excess or distortion of normal functioning and include hallucinations (false perceptions), delusions (false beliefs), disorganized thinking and speech, and agitation.
Negative Symptoms: These involve a decrease or loss of normal functioning and include reduced emotional expression, social withdrawal, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), and a lack of motivation.
Cognitive Symptoms: Individuals with schizophrenia may experience difficulties with attention, memory, and executive functions such as decision-making and problem-solving.
Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by enduring patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience that deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture. These patterns typically begin in adolescence or early adulthood and lead to significant distress or impairment in various areas of life, including relationships, work, and self-identity. There are several distinct types of personality disorders, each with its own set of defining features and characteristics.
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
Eating disorders are complex mental health conditions characterized by irregular eating behaviors, distorted body image, and intense preoccupation with food, weight, and shape. These disorders can have serious physical, emotional, and psychological consequences. Including nutritional deficiencies, gastrointestinal problems, depression, anxiety, and social isolation.
There are several types of eating disorders, each with its own specific features:
- Anorexia Nervosa
- Bulimia Nervosa
- Binge-Eating Disorder
- Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
- Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event. These events may include combat, sexual assault, natural disasters, accidents, or other life-threatening situations. PTSD can affect individuals of all ages and backgrounds, and its symptoms can be severe and disruptive to daily life.
PTSD symptoms can be categorized into four main clusters:
Re-Experiencing Symptoms: Individuals may have flashbacks, nightmares, or distressing thoughts related to the traumatic event.
Avoidance Symptoms: People with PTSD often avoid reminders of the trauma, including places, people, or activities.
Negative Changes in Mood and Cognition: This cluster involves persistent negative emotions, self-blame, difficulty remembering the traumatic event, and distorted thoughts about oneself or the world.
Arousal and Reactivity Symptoms: Individuals may be easily startled, have difficulty sleeping or concentrating, and may exhibit irritable or aggressive behavior.
Neuroimaging in psychiatry refers to the use of various imaging techniques to visualize and study the structure and function of the brain in individuals with psychiatric disorders. These imaging methods provide valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of mental health conditions and have contributed to our understanding of their causes, effects, and treatment.
Neurotransmitter disorders, also known as neurotransmitter imbalances or dysregulations, refer to conditions in which there is an abnormality in the production, release, reception, or clearance of neurotransmitters in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that play a crucial role in transmitting signals between nerve cells (neurons) and are essential for normal brain function. When there is a disruption in the balance of neurotransmitters, it can lead to various neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
Here are some important neurotransmitter disorders:
- Dopamine Disorder
- Serotonin Disorder
- GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) Disorder
- Glutamate Disorder
- Excess Glutamate Acetylcholine Disorder
- Acetylcholine Imbalance
- Norepinephrine Disorders
- Norepinephrine Imbalance
- Histamine Disorder
- Neurotransmitter-Related Disorder
Psychiatric disorders, also known as mental disorders or mental illnesses, are a diverse group of conditions characterized by disturbances in thoughts, emotions, behaviors, or a combination of these. These disorders can significantly impair a person's cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Psychiatric disorders can affect individuals of all ages, genders, and backgrounds.
Cognitive and behavioral neuroscience is a multidisciplinary field of study that explores the relationship between the brain's structure and function and the cognitive and behavioral processes that occur in humans and other animals. This field integrates principles from psychology, neuroscience, biology, and other related disciplines to investigate how the brain processes information, influences behavior, and affects cognitive functions such as perception, memory, learning, decision-making, and emotion.
Key aspects of cognitive and behavioral neuroscience include
- Understanding Brain Function
- Cognitive Processes
- Behavioral Studies
- Neurological Disorders
- Biological Basis of Behavior
Psychiatric medications, also known as psychotropic medications or psychoactive drugs, are prescribed to treat various mental health conditions and psychiatric disorders. These medications work by affecting neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers in the brain that play a role in mood, emotions, thoughts, and behavior. The choice of medication depends on the specific diagnosis and individual factors, such as the patient's symptoms, medical history, and response to treatment.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a medical procedure used primarily to treat severe and treatment-resistant mental health conditions, particularly mood disorders such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. ECT involves the controlled administration of electrical currents to the brain, inducing a brief seizure. While the exact mechanisms of ECT are not fully understood, it is believed to influence neurotransmitter activity and promote changes in brain chemistry that can alleviate symptoms of certain psychiatric disorders.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive medical procedure used to treat certain mental health conditions, primarily major depressive disorder (MDD) and, in some cases, other psychiatric and neurological disorders. TMS involves the use of electromagnetic coils to deliver focused magnetic pulses to specific areas of the brain. These magnetic pulses can influence neuronal activity and have therapeutic effects on various brain functions.
Addiction medicine is a medical specialty focused on the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs) and other forms of addiction. This field of medicine addresses the physical, psychological, and social aspects of addiction, with the goal of helping individuals achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health, and enhance their quality of life.
Here are key aspects of addiction medicine
- Scope of Practice
- Assessment and Diagnosis
- Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT)
- Behavioral Therapies
- Individual and Group Therapy
- Residential and Outpatient Programs
- Harm Reduction
- Co-Occurring Disorders
Substance Abuse (Substance Use Disorder - SUD)
- Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. It involves a pattern of behavior where an individual consumes substances in amounts or in ways that are harmful to themselves or others.
- Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is a clinical term used to describe a range of conditions related to substance abuse, from mild to severe. It is characterized by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that an individual continues using a substance despite significant substance-related problems.
- Common substances of abuse include alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, opioids, stimulants (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine), and various prescription medications.
Mental Illness (Mental Health Disorders)
- Mental illness refers to a wide range of conditions that affect a person's thinking, mood, emotions, and behavior. These conditions can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life.
- Common mental health disorders include depression, anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa).
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic condition characterized by an individual's inability to control their alcohol consumption despite adverse consequences. Drug addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a chronic condition characterized by the compulsive use of drugs, including illicit substances and prescription medications, despite harmful consequences.
Common Symptoms of Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
Physical dependence (experiencing withdrawal symptoms when not drinking), tolerance (needing more alcohol to achieve the desired effect), neglecting personal or professional responsibilities due to drinking, and continued alcohol use despite its negative impact on relationships and health. Loss of control over drug use, withdrawal symptoms when not using, tolerance, neglect of responsibilities, and continued drug use despite negative consequences.
As the name implies, the focus of the medical specialty known as neuropsychiatry is on psychiatry as it relates to neurology. The focus is on examining and managing patients' cognitive and behavioral symptoms who also have neurological diseases. Neuropsychiatry is a branch of research and medicine that focuses on the treatment of people with neurologically based disorders as well as the integrated study of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Neuropsychiatry, a branch of science that supports neuroscience, is used to explore the treatment and care of people with neurological problems, particularly those that affect behavior, and to better understand the neurological basis of mental and neurologic disorders.
Forensic psychiatry is a field of psychiatry that deals with the assessment and treatment of mentally disordered offenders and criminals. It is an interface between mental health & Psychiatry. Emergency psychiatry is the application of psychiatry in emergency. The conditions requiring psychiatric interventions may include substance abuse, attempted suicide, psychosis, depression violence & other abnormal behaviors. Forensic psychiatry is like criminology, which encompasses the interface between law and psychiatry including gracious, criminal, remedial, administrative, or authoritative things, and in specialized clinical discussions in zones such as chance appraisal or employment.
The field of psychiatry known as child and adolescent psychiatry, often known as pediatric psychiatry, focuses on the identification, management, and prevention of mental illnesses in children, adolescents, and their families. It looks at the biopsychosocial factors that affect the onset, progression, and treatment outcomes of psychiatric diseases and various approaches. Psychotherapy and/or medication are the main treatments used by child and adolescent psychiatrists to address mental illnesses in the pediatric population.
Many methods for treating various patients with a variety of issues, such as
- Autism and learning disabilities
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- Neuro-developmental issues that appear in childhood
- Tic disorders
- Behavioural and emotional issues
- Disruptive actions
- Issues with eating and using the lavatory
- Reaction to trauma or life adjustment (such as domestic abuse)
- Anxiety and OCD
In comparison with many other medical disorders, psychiatric disorders are poorly understood and better treatments are needed. These disorders can be the outcome of many different kinds of experiences in a person's life, from early childhood to later life events. So there is a need for research in psychiatry because of the scale of mental health problems, the challenges of an ageing population and age-associated psychiatric disorders and the fact that, Rehabilitation is really necessary in psychiatry.
- Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research
- Population Based Study
- Risks and Benefits
- Post-Trial Obligations
A medical specialisation of psychiatry called addiction psychiatry focuses on assessing, diagnosing, and treating persons who have one or more illnesses connected to addiction. The technique used in addiction medicine is more psychosocial. Focus is placed on identifying and treating mental diseases that coexist with addiction, regardless of whether they were the addiction's primary cause or an effect. Addiction psychiatry takes physical health into account in the same way that addiction medicine does.
In addition to treating the addiction, professionals want to help their patients get better or keep their physical health.
- Heroin and prescription opioids
- Amphetamines / Methamphetamine
Gambling, and other behavioural addictions are all examples of substance abuse (e.g. hypersexual behaviours, internet, shopping).
A subspecialty of psychology called "cross-cultural psychiatry" looks at how cultural and racial factors influence mental illness and access to psychiatric care. The study of migratory populations and ethnic variety within countries, analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product, and surveys of the prevalence and types of disorders in other cultures or countries all contributed to the development of this profession as a whole. Early literature was linked to colonialism and was accused of either ignoring or demeaning other cultures and ethnic groups.
Several crucial fields of research include:
- Language acquisition
- Child development
- Social behavior
- Family and social relationships